Vanessa Redgrave
Stane Sever


1800   France Prešeren is born (3. 12. 1800) in Vrba, in Gorenjsko.

1808   in the autumn, Prešeren goes to Kopanj near Velika Račna, where his great uncle Jožef is a priest. Uncle Jožef teaches France himself, until he starts going to school.

1810   Prešeren enrols at the elementary school in Ribnica in Dolenjsko, where he stays until spring 1812, finishing both school years with distinction.

1812   in the autumn, he enrols in the third year of elementary school in Ljubljana.

1813   in Ljubljana, he attends secondary school, finishing in 1819.

1819   he enrols for philosophy at the Ljubljana lyceum.

1821   he finishes the third year of philosophy in Vienna, this being a precondition for enrolling to study law.

1822   he enrols at the Faculty of Law at the University of Vienna.

1824   during the holidays, he returns home for the first time; he visits his uncles, who work as priests in various parishes around Slovenia.

1825   he writes his first poem, Zarjovena d'vičica, (The Rusty Virgin).

1825-26   he starts getting more seriously involved in poetry, writes quite a number of poems, but burns most of them because of Kopitar's stern criticism.

1826-27   finishing his law studies.

1827   (12th January) - Prešeren's first published poem Dekletom (To Girls) appears in the newspaper Ilirski list (Illyriches Blatt - The Illyrian Sheet)

1827   Prešeren's mentor Matija Čop returns to Ljubljana from Poland, and becomes a librarian.

1828   (26th March) - Prešeren completes all the formalities, and the next day is made a Doctor of Law.

1828   he spends some time in Moravia, with his former pupil.

1828   (1st September) - he is employed as a trainee by the lawyer Dr Leopold Baumgarten.

1829-31   Prešeren also works as an apprentice at the Ljubljana tax office.

1829-32   the poet is friendly with Marija Johana Khlun from Graz; even though this is a serious and initially reciprocal love, Prešeren later withdraws for reasons that are not quite clear.

1830   the first volume of Kranjska čbelica (The Carniolan Bee) appears, in which Prešeren's translation of the poem Leonora, his ballad Povodni mož (The River Man) and the poem Slovo od mladosti (A Farewell to My Youth) are published.

1831   the publication of the second volume of Kranjska čbelica, with Prešeren's Ljubezenski soneti (Love Sonnets), Nova pisarija (The New Writing) and the romance Hčere svet (The Daughter's Advice).

1831-34   he works as a trainee in the office of the lawyer Dr Baumgarten.

1832   he prepares for his legal examination in Klagenfurt and only just passes the exam.

1832   his first application for an independent legal practice is submitted and rejected.

1832   the publication of the third volume of Kranjska čbelica, with some new poems by Prešeren.

1833   Matija Čop publishes in Ilirski list the translation of the review of Kranjska čbelica written by the Czech literary critic and poet Čelakovsky, who praises Prešeren's poems.

1833   (6th April) - in the church in Trnovo, Prešeren meets Julija Primic, the daughter of a rich Ljubljana merchant. The poet's love for Julija marks his personal and poetic fate for the rest of his life.

1834   the publication of Sonetni venec (A Wreath of Sonnets), which he dedicates to Julija, by means of an acrostic. The young lady, and particularly her mother, are not too pleased.

1834   Prešeren is employed by Dr Blaž Crobath, for whom he works until he moves to Kranj in 1846.

1834   the publication of the fourth volume of Kranjska čbelica.

1834   Prešeren applies for legal practice for a second time and is rejected again.

1835   Matija Čop drowns whilst swimming in the Sava near Tomačevo.

1835   the poet publishes Krst pri Savici (The Baptism by the Savica) himself.

1837   two Polish political exiles, Emil Korytko and Boguslav Horodinyski, arrive in Ljubljana. In Korytko, Prešeren finds a kindred spirit and a good friend.

1837   the poet meets fifteen-year old Ana Jelovšek, with which he later has three children out of wedlock.

1838   the poet's father Šimen dies in Skaručna.

1838   Korytko prepares a collection of Slovene folk songs for publication. Prešeren helps him, particularly with the language.

1839   Emil Korytko dies of typhoid in Ljubljana.

1839   the marriage of Prešeren's unrequited love Julija Primic.

1839   the birth of Prešeren's first daughter, Rezika, who dies in 1840.

1839   Prešeren frequently socialises with his old friend and schoolmate, Andrej Smole, after the latter returns to Ljubljana following a long stay abroad. Together, they plan publications of literature in Slovene and even a Slovene newspaper.

1840   Andrej Smole has a stroke at the dinner celebrating his name-day. He dies in Prešeren's arms.

1840   the rejection of the poet's third application for a legal practice.

1841   Prešeren falls in love again, his love is not reciprocated and he has another poetically productive period. His muse this time is Jerica Podboj, the daughter of the innkeeper Metka Podboj; the poet spends a lot of time in Pekel (The Inferno), Metka's inn.

1842   Mina Prešeren, the poet's mother, dies.

1842   the birth of Prešeren's second child, Ernestina Jelovšek. Her memoirs of her father, published in 1903, are a valuable, albeit not the most reliable, source of research into and understanding of the poet's life and work.

1843   the poet writes Nezakonska mati (The Unmarried Mother).

1843   Kmetijske in rokodelske novice (The Farming and Crafts News) begins to appear. The editor, Janez Bleiweis, does not invite Prešeren to contribute.

1843   Prešeren's fourth application for a legal practice is rejected.

1844   Prešeren writes Zdravljica (A Toast).

1846   his fifth application for a legal practice is rejected, too.

1846   Prešeren hands a manuscript of Poezije (Poems) to be censored.

1846   the poet submits his sixth application for a legal practice - this time, not for one in Ljubljana, but in Kranj or Postojna.

1846   the censor approves the publication of Poems.

1846   Prešeren is granted a legal practice in Kranj.

1846   in October, the poet moves to Kranj, where he starts his independent legal practice.

1846   in December, the Poems by Dr France Prešeren are printed, the key literary work of the time and of Slovene literature in general. 1200 copies are printed, bearing the year 1847, and the book sells relatively well for those days.

1848   Novice publishes Zdravljica.

1848   a revolution in Vienna. The poet actively involved with the national defence in Kranj.

1849   France Prešeren dies in Kranj, of cirrhosis of the liver.

1849   (10th February) - the poet is buried solemnly in Kranj, and at the wake, a committee is founded to organise a monument in his memory.

1852   Prešeren's remains are moved to what is the central part of the Kranj cemetery and a monument is erected on his grave. Bleiweis gives a speech, and a choir sings Levstik's poem On Prešeren's Grave, set to music by Gregor Rihar.

1944   the Slovene national freedom council proclaims the 8th of February as a Slovene national cultural holiday.

1947   the first Prešeren awards for cultural and artistic achievements are presented.

1992   the Bank of Slovenia issues a 1000 tolar bank-note, on which there is an image of Dr France Prešeren, which comes into circulation in 1992.

1994   with the coming into force of the law on the coat of arms, the flag and the anthem adopted by the Slovene National Assembly, Prešeren's Zdravljica becomes the official Slovene anthem.



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